In-system Design Others Driver

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The easiest way is to run. Lspci -k grep -EA3 'VGA 3D Display' Example: 00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Intel Corporation HD Graphics 530 (rev 06) Subsystem: ASUSTeK Computer Inc. HD Graphics 530 Kernel driver in use: i915 Kernel modules: i915 - 01:00.0 3D controller: NVIDIA Corporation GM107M GeForce GTX 950M (rev a2) Subsystem: ASUSTeK Computer Inc. GM107M GeForce GTX 950M Kernel. Intermediate drivers rely on the lowest level drivers to function. The Windows Driver Model (WDM) exists in the intermediate layer. The lowest level drivers are either legacy Windows NT device drivers that control a device directly or can be a PnP hardware bus. These lower level drivers directly control hardware and do not rely on any other.

In this topic we explain how to use Visual Studio to start writing a new software driver. Software drivers are different from device function drivers, filter drivers, and file system drivers, which we cover in other topics. For more information about software drivers and how they differ from other types of drivers, see What is a Driver? Drivers matrox port devices. and Choosing a Driver Model.

To begin, first determine which driver model is appropriate for your software driver. The three options are the Kernel Mode Driver Framework (KMDF), the legacy NT driver model, and the Windows Driver Model (WDM). For help determining which model is best for you, see Choosing a Driver Model.

Case 1: You want to use KMDF

  1. In Visual Studio, on the File menu, choose New Project.
  2. In the New Project dialog box, in the left pane, locate and select WDF.
  3. In the middle pane, select Kernel Mode Driver (KMDF).
  4. Fill in the Name and Location boxes, and select OK. For more details, see Writing a KMDF Driver Based on a Template.

    Note

    When you create a new KMDF driver, you must select a driver name that has 32 characters or less. This length limit is defined in wdfglobals.h.

  5. At this point, you have a driver project that implements the general code required by most KMDF drivers. Now you can supply the code that is specific to your software driver.

Case 2: You want to use the legacy NT model

  1. In Visual Studio, on the File menu, choose New Project.

  2. In Visual Studio, in the New Project dialog box, under Windows Driver, select WDM Empty WDM Driver.

    Note

    You are not going to write a WDM driver, but you need the Empty WDM Driver template.

  3. Fill in the Name and Location boxes, and select OK.

  4. At this point, you have an empty WDM driver project. In the Solution Explorer window, select and hold (or right-click) your driver project, and choose Add New Item.

  5. In the Add New Item dialog box, select C++ File (.cpp), enter a name for your file, and select OK.

    Note

    If you want to create a .c file instead of a .cpp file, enter a name that has the .c extension.

  6. Include ntddk.h.

  7. Implement the functions required by your software driver. As you implement and organize your functions, you might decide to add header files and additional .cpp or .c files.

Case 3: You want to use WDM

It is extremely unlikely that you'll want to use WDM for a software driver. But if you do, follow these steps.

  1. In Visual Studio, on the File menu, choose New Project.

  2. In Visual Studio, in the New Project dialog box, under Windows Driver, select WDM.

  3. Fill in the Name and Location boxes, and select OK.

  4. At this point, you have an empty WDM driver project. In the Solution Explorer window, select and hold (or right-click) your driver project, and choose Add New Item.

  5. In the Add New Item dialog box, select C++ File (.cpp), enter a name for your file, and select OK.

    Note

    If you want to create a .c file instead of a .cpp file, enter a name that has the .c extension.

  6. Include wdm.h.

  7. Implement the functions required by your software driver. As you implement and organize your functions, you might decide to add header files and additional .cpp or .c files.

Architectural drivers are formally defined as the set of requirements that have significant influence over your architecture. In other words, there are some requirements that will help you decide which structures to pick for your system design and others that are less consequential in the context of software architecture. This implies that it is extremely important to get the architectural drivers right early in a project, as architecture structures will become more difficult to change as the developed software becomes more realized.
Thinking about early requirements as 'drivers' can also help you to create traceability from stakeholder concerns to specific architectural decisions made. Having this traceability is great because it helps to promote important qualities in your team, such as agility. With traceability you can make changes on purpose and with confidence as you understand the genesis for structural decisions.

What are Architectural Drivers?

OthersArchitectural drivers have significant influence over the design of a system and are the determining factor over whether one design is “better” or “worse” than another that produces the same features. Architectural drivers are nearly always divided into four categories. Some people might go with only three categories (talking generally about constraints), and others might include other things as drivers, but if this is your first time working with architectural drivers you should start with these four categories before tailoring.
Architectural drivers can be one of the following.
  1. Technical Constraints
  2. Business Constraints
  3. Quality Attributes
  4. High-Level Functional Requirements
Let's go into more detail for each of these categories.

Technicalconstraints are technical design decisions which absolutely must be satisfied in thearchitecture. These are generally fixedfrom the beginning of a project and may be expensive to change as the projectprogresses. Constraints, as the the name suggests, cannot be changed.

Businessconstraints are decisions imposed by business considerations that mustbe satisfied in the architecture. Liketechnical constraints, business constraints are generally fixed from thebeginning and have a significant influence on decision making for the design. Likewise once in place these are considered unchangeable. An example might be a specific delivery date, budget, or
Qualityattributes, sometimes called quality requirements, are specific criteria by which a system’s operations can be judged –that is, how well a system performs specific functions. Quality attributesgreatly influence the design of the system. In many cases, the same functionality can be achieved in a number ofways and so it is the quality attributes that ultimately determines when one design is better or worsethan another. Quality attributes receive a significant and thorough treatment in Software Architecture in Practice and you can read a sample chapter introducing quality attributes online. Quality attributes are recorded as scenarios that describes a qualitative response within the context of specific system functionality. For example, performance is a common quality attribute, but performance when the system is doing what?

High-levelfunctional requirements provide an overview for what the system will do, the functions and features of the system. These might take shape in any number of formats from epics to stories to use cases to ye olde 'shall' statements. While quality attributes might determine specific structures you choose, the ultimate goal of the software you are building is to build achieve some bit of functionality. From an architecture perspective, you won't go to exhaustive detail, and indeed it's best not to go into too much detail as diving deep too early can seriously delay the project.

What about Non-Functional Requirements?

DriverIf you've read any of the software engineering literature, you'll see the term 'non-functional' requirements used fairly often. The basic thinking was that there are these things that are functional requirements, and then there's things that are not functional requirements, non-functional requirements. Setting aside the fact that calling requirements 'non-functional' is kind of silly and certainly not precise, this term comes up enough that it's important to understand it in the context of architectural drivers.
Most of the time people are referring to constraints and quality attributes when they talk about non-functional requirements. Unfortunately, most of the time teams will lump all 'non-functionals' into a single list. This is unfortunate because knowing specifically what kinds of drivers you are dealing with gives you a lot of decision making power.
In-system Design Others DriverFunctional requirements are negotiable and must be shown to be correct.
Constraints cannot be changed once fixed.

In-system Design Others Driver Download


In-system Design Others Driver Experience

Quality attributes imply trade-offs and often can't be directly tested until very late in the system's lifecycle. As a result you will need to find proxies, run experiments, and reason about the structures you've selected to determine whether or not you've promoted the right quality attributes.